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Setup refers to a golfer’s posture, ball position, stance, weight distribution, and muscular readiness. Similar to aim, if you set-up differently each time and hit the ball toward your target, you might actually be making different swings each time to compensate. Instead, we want to setup the same each time and allow ourselves to make a consistent swing. An exception is made among more advanced golfers, of course, if they wish to manipulate the ball flight or type of shot (e.g., high, low, fade, draw), as modifications to setup can help produce those results.
Coaches Bradley and Josh on setup:

drills & More on setup:

Setup and ball position with coaches Melissa and Jessica

Setup for Junior Golfers with Roxy and Mr. Short Game:

Tips for Swing Posture & Setup with Scratch Golf Academy:

Rick Shiels' Guide to Setup